Full Paper

Short Paper

Full Paper Session I   Monday May 23 8:40 AM - 9:50 AM
Session Chair: Prof. Dr. Ken Lee, University of Massachusetts - Dartmouth
Full PaperEfficient Evaluation of Location-Dependent Skyline Queries Using Non-Dominance Scopes

Ken Lee

With respect to a given query point , a location-dependent skyline query (LDSQ) finds all objects that are not spatially dominated by any other in a specified set of objects. An object o is considered to spatially dominate another o if o is not worse than o for all search criteria and strictly better than o for at least one of the search criteria. Here, the search criteria include the objects' nearness to q and their non-spatial attributes. LDSQs have many valuable applications that need to find the best and nearest objects. Nevertheless, efficient evaluation of LDSQs faces challenges due to exhaustive comparisons among objects in determining their spatial dominance relationships which in turn depend on query points at the run time. In this paper, we introduce a notion of non-dominance scopes. For each object, a non-dominance scope is an area in which query points find the object not spatially dominated by other objects. With non-dominance scopes, LDSQs are simplified as searches for objects whose non-dominance scopes enclose query points. We develop algorithms to compute non-dominance scopes and evaluate LDSQs using indexed non-dominance scopes. We also evaluate our proposed approach. The experiment results show the outstanding performance of our proposed approach.

Keywords: Location-Based Services, Location-Dependent Skyline Query, Spatial Dominance, Non-Dominance Scope, Algorithm and Performance

Full PaperSummarizing Textual Information about Locations

Congxing Cai, Eduard Hovy

This paper describes the summarization of textual material about locations in the context of a geo-spatial information display system. Both structured data and unstructured web pages are linked to maps. When the amount of associated textual data is large, it is organized and summarized before display. A hierarchical summarization framework, conditioned on the small space available for display, has been fully implemented. A case study is conducted on a fully implemented system to show how users interact with text in an integration context. Eye-tracking results are presented to illustrate and verify the observations in case study.

Keywords: Hierarchical text summarization, geo-spatial information system, geographical search, eye-tracking experiment

Full PaperService-Oriented Interactive 3D Visualization of Massive 3D City Models on Thin Clients

Dieter Hildebrandt, Jan Klimke, Benjamin Hagedorn, Jurgen Dollner

Virtual 3D city models serve as integration platforms for complex geospatial and georeferenced information and as medium for effective communication of spatial information. In this paper, we present a system architecture for service-oriented, interactive 3D visualization of massive 3D city models on thin clients such as mobile phones and tablets. It is based on high performance, server-side 3D rendering of extended cube maps, which are interactively visualized by corresponding 3D thin clients. As key property, the complexity of the cube map data transmitted between server and client does not depend on the model's complexity. In addition, the system allows the integration of thematic raster and vector geodata into the visualization process. Users have extensive control over the contents and styling of the visual representations. The approach provides a solution for safely, robustly distributing and interactively presenting massive 3D city models. A case study related to city marketing based on our prototype implementation shows the potentials of both server-side 3D rendering and fully interactive 3D thin clients on mobile phones.

Keywords: Service-oriented architecture, mobile device, distributed geo-visualization, 3D geovirtual environment, virtual 3D city model, 3D computer graphics

Full Paper Session II   Monday May 23 1:00 PM - 2:25 PM
Session Chair: Dr. Sriram Krishnan , San Diego Supercomputer Center at UC San Diego
Full PaperEnabling the "Internet of Places": a Virtual Structure of Space-Time-Tasks to find and Use Internet Resources

Giuseppe Conti, Paul Watson, Nic Shape, Raffaele De Amicis, Federico Prandi

The growing success of 3D spinning globes, navigation systems, and Location-Based Services (LBS) is promoting a profound paradigm shift, as people are becoming increasingly accustomed to accessing heterogeneous digital content in relation to real world locations - be this place referred to within a tweet, the location of an incident as described by a news report, the various places where a video was filmed etc.
In response to this, an increasing number of Web 2.0 mash-ups are available from the web offering specialized web-based solutions to access various types of information based on the position of events in the real world. Nevertheless, the lack of native spatial support at the web level precludes geographical or location based contextualization of most digital resources available through the Internet.
This paradigm shift has created the preconditions at societal level for spatio-temporal enablement of the Internet which should evolve from a paradigm based on the "Internet of Objects" to a new, spatio-temporally capable, "Internet of Places", made of natively spatio-temporally contextualized web-services. This paper presents a vision for the next generation of intelligent web-based applications capable of delivering context-aware and real-time access to large-data repositories, by providing overarching technology to organize, filter and explore Web content from every domain using the same intuitive user-driven and spatio-temporal metaphor.
This paper tries to define a blueprint proposing protocols and data structures that could be used to reorient the web to change the key dimension for accessing and organizing resources, from the structure of Internet addresses to a more natural structure of space and time. According to this approach it would not matter where a resource is physically stored, but only whether it is relevant to a given user's task with respect to place and time.
This is what we have called the "Internet of Places".

Keywords: "Internet of Places", geospatial web, Future Internet, content creation, content indexing, information model.

Full PaperAn Open Geospatial Consortium Standards-based Arctic Climatology Sensor Network Prototype

Andrew John Rettig, Richard Allan Beck, Timothy John Rettig

We have constructed a prototype Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards-based Arctic Climatology Sensor Network Prototype (ACSNP) in response to recent developments in sensor technology and Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) wireless communications in Barrow, Alaska for the National Science Foundation (NSF). The OGC standards enable increased, interoperability, scalability, and extensibility for geospatial information at reduced cost. Our approach for the prototype is to integrate established technologies to create near-real-time geographic information networks (GINs). We linked a variety of meteorological and image sensors to a wide area wireless network in Barrow, Alaska. The network is a TCP/IP-based 700 Mhz WipLL network consisting of a 16 kilometer diameter local cloud as well as more distant fixed and mobile Iridium Open Port Units, that allow for global connectivity, at other remote research stations and on polar class ice breakers. Sensors linked to these wireless networks transfer their data to the Department of Energy (DOE) building in Barrow. The building houses two automatically populated mirrored File Transfer Protocol (FTP) servers running Microsoft Server 2003 within a virtualized environment. The data are automatically harvested from the remote site over redundant 4 X T-1 satellite links to the central data center in Cincinnati, Ohio where it is formatted to comply with the OGC database initiatives to create an OGC-compliant geodatabase within Microsoft SQL Server 2008. The final web publication is the result of a three part system; geodatabases, web services and web applications. We use ESRI's ArcGIS Server technology for retrieval and publication utilizing ESRI's compliance with OGC web services. These web services may then be embedded within OGC compliant clients, such as ESRI's ArcGIS Desktop and Google Earth for analysis and web applications. The Arctic Climatology Sensor Network Prototype is accessible at OpenSensorMap.com.

Keywords: Spatial Data Infrastructure, Geographic Information Network, GIN, Sensor Network, Sensor Web, Open Geospatial Consortium, OGC, Climatology, Arctic, Common Operational Platform, COP.

Full PaperAnalysing Complexity of XML Schemas in Geospatial Web Services

Alain Tamayo, Carlos Granell, Joaquin Huerta

XML Schema is the language used to define the structure of messages exchanged between OGC-based web service clients and providers. The size of these schemas has been growing with time, reaching a state that makes its understanding and effective application a hard task. A first step to cope with this situation is to provide different ways to measure the complexity of the schemas. In this regard, we present in this paper an analysis of the complexity of XML schemas in OGC web services. We use a group of metrics found in the literature and introduce new metrics to measure size and/or complexity of these schemas. The use of adequate metrics allows us to quantify the complexity, quality and other properties of the schemas, which can be very useful in different scenarios.

Keywords: XML Schema, Web Services, Geospatial Information, Complexity Analysis, Software Metrics

Full Paper Session III   Tuesday May 24 8:30 AM - 9:30 AM
Session Chair: Dr. Giuseppe Conti , Fondazione Graphitech
Full PaperSQUISH: An Online Approach for GPS Trajectory Compression

Jonathan Muckell, Vikram Patil, Fan Ping, Catherine T Lawson, Jeong-Hyon Hwang, S. S. Ravi

GPS-equipped mobile devices such as smart phones and in-car navigation units are collecting enormous amounts spatial and temporal information that traces a moving object's path. The popularity of these devices has led to an exponential increase in the amount of GPS trajectory data generated. The size of this data makes it difficult to transmit it over a mobile network and to analyze it to extract useful patterns. Numerous compression algorithms have been proposed to reduce the size of trajectory data sets; however these methods often lose important information essential to location-based applications such as object's position, time and speed. This paper describes the Spatial QUalIty Simplification Heuristic (SQUISH) method that demonstrates improved performance when compressing up to roughly 10% of the original data size, and preserves speed information at a much higher accuracy under aggressive compression. Performance is evaluated by comparison with three competing trajectory compression algorithms: Uniform Sampling, Douglas-Peucker and Dead Reckoning.

Keywords: GPS, Trajectories, Compression

Full PaperOntological Analysis of Terrain Data

Susanne Riehemann, Daniel Elenius

Geographic applications require increasingly accurate data, for example to support high fidelity visual simulations. However, information about data accuracy is typically not directly available, and must instead be inferred from the manner in which the data was acquired and processed. Some inaccuracies arise as subtle side-effects of processing steps, such as transformation errors due to implicit epochs or unintentional downsampling due to pixel overlap, which are known to only a small number of experts. To address this problem, we formalize the properties of each piece of data and its processing history in a geographic ontology, and use declarative Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) rules to calculate the errors relative to the real world or to other data. Since the impact of these errors depends on the purpose for which the data is to be used, purpose-dependent requirements are described using an additional task ontology and evaluated by our task analyzer software. The geographic ontology combines knowledge from different areas of expertise, and our formal implementation makes it available for the community to use, critique, and augment.

Keywords: Terrain ontology, terrain accuracy, metadata

Full PaperOpenTopography: A Services Oriented Architecture for Community Access to LIDAR Topography

Sriram Krishnan, Christopher Crosby, Viswanath Nandigam, Minh Phan, Charles Cowart, Chaitanya Baru, Ramon Arrowsmith

High-resolution topography data acquired with LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) remote sensing technology have emerged as a fundamental tool for Earth science research. Because these acquisitions are often undertaken with federal and state funds at significant cost, it is important to maximize the impact if these geospatial data by providing online access to a range of potential users. The National Science Foundation-funded OpenTopography Facility hosted at the San Diego Supercomputer Center, has developed a Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure (GCI) to enable online access to Earth science-oriented high-resolution LIDAR topography data, online processing tools, and derivative products. Leveraging high performance computational and data storage resources available at SDSC, OpenTopography provides access to terabytes of point cloud data, standard digital elevation models, and Google Earth image data, all co-located with computational resources for higherlevel data processing. This paper describes the motivation, goals, and the technical details of the Services Oriented Architecture (SOA) and underlying cyberinfrastructure platform implemented by OpenTopography. The use of an SOA, and the co-location of processing and data resources are unique to the field of LIDAR topography data processing, and lays a foundation for providing an open system for hosting and providing access to data and computational tools for these important scientific data, and is an exemplar for similar large geospatial data and processing communityoriented cyberinfrastructure systems.

Keywords: LIDAR, SOA, Cyberinfrastructure

Full Paper Session IV   Tuesday May 24 1:00 PM - 2:20 PM
Session Chair: Patrick Cozzi, AGI, University of Pennsylvania
Full PaperMachine Learning Approaches for High-resolution Urban Land Cover Classification

Ranga Raju Vatsavai, Varun Chandola, Anil Cheriyadat, Eddie Bright, Bhaduri Budhendra, Jordan Grasser

Proliferation of several machine learning approaches makes it hard to identify a suitable classification technique for analyzing high-resolution remote sensing images. In this study, we compared ten classification techniques from five broad machine learning categories. Surprisingly, the performance of simple statistical classification schemes like maximum likelihood and Logistic regression versus more complex and recent techniques is very close. Given that these two classifiers require little input from the user, they should still be considered for most classification tasks. Multiple classifier systems is a good choice if the resources permit.

Keywords: Bayesian Classi cation, Trees, Neural Networks, MCS

Full PaperDealing with Large Schema Sets in Mobile SOS-Based Applications

Alain Tamayo, Carlos Granell, Joaqui­n Huerta

Although the adoption of OGC Web Services for server, desktop and web applications has been successful, its penetration in mobile devices has been slow. One of the main reasons is the performance problems associated with XML processing as it consumes a lot of memory and processing time, which are scarce resources in a mobile device. In this paper we propose an algorithm to generate efficient code for XML data binding for mobile SOS-based applications. The algorithm takes advantage of the fact that individual implementations use only some portions of the standards' schemas, which allows the simplification of large XML schema sets in an application-specific manner by using a subset of XML instance _les conforming to these schemas.

Keywords: XML Schema, Web Services, Geospatial Information, XML Data Binding, Sensor Observation Services

Full PaperAn Ontology-based Spatio-temporal Data Model and Query Language for Use in GIS-type Applications

Margaret Lyell, D. Voyadgis, M. Song, P. Ketha, P. Dibner

In this paper, we present a Web Ontology language (OWL) -based spatio-temporal data model that introduces the "spatio-temporal coordinate" concept and makes use of "temporal lifting". The ontology-based data model captures application data features. A process for application data model development that incorporates spatio-temporal dependencies is presented. Standardized spatial concepts can be utilized. Spatio-temporal querying is supported; it makes use of the full data model. These concepts have been utilized in a prototype effort. The prototype was architected as a three-tier distributed, Web-based system. The middle tier, a query-answering layer, is incorporated into a Web-based Geographic Information System, GeoServer, while maintaining GeoServer's capabilities. The user's Query Console, architected as a Java applet, presents the ontology-based application data model to the user to support query formulation. The back-end data tier is extended by Managers that work with the ontology instance data to support faster access and query answering performance.

Keywords: Ontology, Spatio-temporal, Data Model, Query Language, GIS

Short Paper Session I   Monday May 23 8:40 AM - 9:50 AM
Session Chair: Dr. J.D. Blower, University of Reading, UK

Short PaperAnalyzing Tropical Cyclone Tracks of North Indian Ocean

Mukta Paliwal, Anand Patwardhan, N.L. Sarda

Cyclones are regarded as one of the most dangerous meteorological phenomena of the tropical region. The probability of landfall of a tropical cyclone depends on its movement (trajectory). Analysis of trajectories of tropical cyclones could be useful for identifying potentially predictable characteristics. In this study, tropical cyclone tracks over the North Indian Ocean basin have been analyzed and grouped into clusters based on their spatial characteristics. For the identified clusters we have also examined characteristics such as life span, maximum sustained wind speed, landfall, seasonality. The resultant clusters are forming clear groupings on some of these characteristics. The cyclones with higher maximum wind speed and longest life span are grouped in to one cluster. Another cluster includes short duration cyclonic events that are mostly deep depressions and significant for rainfall over Eastern and Central India. The clustering approach is likely to prove useful for analysis of events of significance with regard to impacts.

Keywords: Cluster analysis, landfall, north Indian Ocean, trajectories, tropical cyclones.

Short PaperGIS Analysis of U.S. Patent Data: Examining Local Innovation Patterns

Jon Moore, Qian Cui

Current patent data in the United States provides limited spatial analysis capabilities within GIS applications. Most U.S. government data sources assign Federal Information Processing System (FIPS) codes or postal zip codes which facilitate GIS data input. However, neither the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office nor the National Bureau of Economic Research assign location codes, or geocodes, in patent records or patent applicant data. Instead, patent records contain postal town or city place-names provided along with U.S. state locations. Place-names may not be unique within certain states and data from large cities can only be attributed over a wide area. This has resulted in most patent research to be analyzed only at the state scale of analysis. This paper presents a method for data structures and geocoding that allows for geographical analysis of patents at the local (town, city and/or county) scale. This method is applied for data in Ohio from 2002 to 2006—the five most recent years of available data. The results show significant variability of data at the local scale. This variability is shown in terms of total patents, patenting by economic sector and for patent data standardized for the per capita labor force. The results also show the predominance of general manufacturing patents across the state, by comparison to specialized sectors. The results also illustrate two distinct innovation regions, along the I-75 corridor and in Northeast Ohio.

Keywords: Patents, business intelligence, GIS, innovation, Ohio

Short PaperQuery Rewriting in Spatial Database for Access Control

Zhen chen, Rongguo Chen, Jiong Xie, Mingbo Zhang, Changxiu Cheng, Yingdong Chen

Current database with numerous users requires access control. It is also needed in spatial database systems that keep both spatial attribute and non-spatial attribute safe. The query rewriting technology in spatial database is discussed in this paper. First the operations for merging authorization policies are discussed. By classifying the subjects and permit flag of the authorization policies, two operations, both intersection and union, are discussed with different purpose. And an algorithm for merging user's authorization policies is prompted. Then a view based query rewriting method is set up by replacing the all relations in the query with the corresponding view. That makes sure the fine-grained access control for the spatial database and spatial objects. Finally, a spatial database as an application is given to validate the effectiveness of query rewriting technology in spatial database.

Keywords: Fine-grained, access control, spatial database, query rewriting.

Short PaperiGlobe: An Interactive Visualization and Analysis Framework for Geospatial Data

Varun Chandola, Ranga Raju Vatsavai, Budhendra Bhaduri

We demonstrate an interactive visualization and analysis system for integrating climate data with other geospatial data sets, such as environmental and demographic data. The iGlobe system is a desktop-based visualization and analysis environment which allows seamless integration of multiple geospatial data sets from varied sources and provides an in- terface to interactively analyze the di erent data sets and apply sophisticated data analysis and mining algorithms in a near real time fashion. The framework is highly desirable in domains such as earth and climate sciences where great emphasis is placed on simultaneous analysis of di erent data sets such as remote sensing images, climate model simulation outputs, and other environmental and demographic databases, to understand weather and climate systems and the impact of climate change on nature and people.

Keywords: Visualization, Analysis, Geospatial, Spatiotemporal

Short Paper Session II   Monday May 23 2:40 PM - 4:40 PM
Session Chair: Prof. Dr. Ge Jin, Purdue Univeristy Calumet

Short PaperRoad Extraction Using Smart Phones GPS

Zheng Niu, Songnian Li, Neda Poursaeid

GPS data crowd-sourced through smart phones is an emerging source of inexpensive data that can be used to provide real-time traffic information, identify traffic patterns, and predict traffic congestions. The same type of data can be very useful for cost-effective, fast updating of road network databases due to its rich spatial and temporal coverage and high data volume. This paper presents results of a study that extracts road geometry data using GPS data received from smart phones through a mobile traffic alert application. The focus is on the method for road centerlines and the study presents some promising results. It is expected the method can supplement, if not replace, the current practices of acquiring road network data using either traditional expensive and time consuming survey or remote sensing approaches.

Keywords: GPS data, road central line, algorithm, database

Short PaperService Chaining for Accessing Geospatial Information in Mobile Devices

Arindam Dasgupta, S.K. Ghosh

Technological advances in mobile devices as well as wireless networking are leading us towards a vision where mobile devices are utilized to access an array of geospatial web services in context of user specific geospatial information. Web Services enables pervasive accessibility of geospatial information in the mobile device and overcomes the physical location constraints of conventional computing. This technology is the perfect candidate, since a strong interoperable capability is the key requirement for sharing of geospatial data. The geospatial data can be useful for decision making but the required information may not be always available only through the geospatial data services. The geospatial data essentially are required to turn into value added information. Thus, need of a geospatial data processing service is required which will be able to process geospatial data on-the-fly to resolve need of the mobile users. In this paper a framework has been proposed to provide value added geospatial information to the mobile users.

Keywords: Geospatial database, GIS, Spatial web services, Service Chaining

Short PaperRouting-based Map Matching for Extracting Routes from GPS Trajectories

Terry Griffin, Yan Huang, Shawn Seals

This paper introduces a novel offline map matching approach. We develop a routing-based map matching approach for standardizing identified routes in a collected GPS trajectories. Our approach first identifies key waypoints in a user's GPS trajectory using a modified Peucker curve reduction algorithm. Subsequently, it sends the key waypoints to a blackbox driving directions service which returns a route utilizing each of the key waypoints. The returned route is a standardized representation of the original GPS trajectory constructed using the minimum necessary set of points. A filter-and-re ne approach is used to identify the incorrect portion of the returned route and a re ne step is carried out by eliminating the waypoints which lead to the incorrect matching. Experiments results showed that the proposed approach works well for a dataset of 10 volunteers each collecting data an average of 34.3 days.

Keywords: Map-Matching, GPS, Web-based Services

Short PaperMining Social Media to Create Personalized Recommendations for Tourist Visits

Adrian Popescu, Gregory Grefenstette

Photo sharing platforms users often annotate their trip photos with landmark names. These annotations can be aggregated in order to recommend lists of popular visitor attractions similar to those found in classical tourist guides. However, individual tourist preferences can vary significantly so good recommendations should be tailored to individual tastes. Here we pose this visit personalization as a collaborative filtering problem. We mine the record of visited landmarks exposed in online user data to build a user-user similarity matrix. When a user wants to visit a new destination, a list of potentially interesting visitor attractions is produced based on the experience of like-minded users who already visited that destination. We compare our recommender to a baseline which simulates classical tourist guides on a large sample of Flickr users.

Keywords: Collaborative filtering, tourist photographs, photo collections, Flickr, personalization, landmarks, recommendation

Short PaperFormalizing Fuzzy Spatial Data Model for Integrating Heterogeneous Spatial Data

S.K. Ghosh, Indira Mukherjee

The geospatial information is becoming a major input for various decision making processes. The heterogeneity in the spatial data sets, usually collected and maintained by diverse organizations in their proprietary formats, posses a serious challenge for the integration process. Thus, the first step in this integration process is to develop a standardize geospatial data model from the individual data models. Then the model needs to be encoded in standard schema (GML) and the spatial web services need to be instantiated. Typically, an Enterprise-GIS (E-GIS) framework incorporates the OGC compliant geospatial web services for integration of heterogeneous spatial data sets. Further, the fuzziness exists in the properties of the geospatial objects and their relationships. Thus, there is a need to incorporate the fuzzy characteristics in the data model (application schema) of the E-GIS framework. The present work proposes a fuzzy geospatial data modeling technique for generation of fuzzy application schema. An approach for formalizing the fuzzy model using description logic has also been attempted. The formalization facilitate automated schema mapping required for the integration process. The efficacy of the proposed methodology has been demonstrated with help of an example.

Keywords: Spatial Data Model, Fuzzy Data Model, Enterprise GIS

Short PaperWorkflow Technology for Geo-Processing: The Missing Link

S. Migliorini, M. Gambini, A. Belussi, M. Negri, G. Pelagatti

Nowadays GIS users have at their disposal an unprecedented amount of spatial information, thanks to the growing acquisition capacity of the applied survey techniques and instruments, and to the development of Spatial Data Infrastructures and OGC Standards for sharing distributed spatial data. In this context there is the need for new GIS applications that cross the boundary of a single organization and are flexible enough to adapt to the environmental changes. This paper evaluates the applicability of the emerging workflow technology for developing new GIS distributed applications that combine automatic services and human interactions, and are able to deal with large amount of spatial data during long-running processing tasks. Moreover, the limits of this technology when applied to the geographical context are highlighted and some possible solutions to these limitations are proposed.

Keywords: Geo-processing workflow, Spatial Data Infrastructure, collaborative processes

Short PaperCitizenship Through Data Sharing in the Amazon Region

Jorge Xavier da Silva, Tiago Badre Marino

Efforts to promote digital, social and environmental inclusions the Central Amazon Region are being made. The Federal Government and some universities plan to mobilize over forty thousands high school teachers and their students to grow as citizens, portraying through their own and unbiased perception the environment from which they emerged. The Rio de Janeiro Federal University (UFRJ) developed a web based system through which high school students are able to upload to Internet, after screening procedures, all kinds of data (textual, pictures, videos, files) of their choice, using low cost equipments (GPS, digital cameras and notebooks) and simple system interfaces. During 2010, a pilot project has been applied to 48 high schools of the Santarem Municipality, Pará State, in the Central Amazon Region. The basic structure, procedures and some already obtained results are made available in the present paper, documenting one more example of data processing technology promoting citizenship in an emblematic region of Brazil.

Keywords: Amazon Region, data sharing, citizenship, geoprocessing, geographic information system, education, government, census

Short PaperDistributed Image Processing and Classification for GIS Based Disaster Management and Communication System

Ge Jin, Babara Nicolai, Keyuan Jiang, Charles Winer

Natural disasters, such as hurricanes, tsunamis and earthquakes cause huge loss of life, enormous amounts of property damage, and lengthy recovery times. Although it is impossible to avoid the costs of disasters, human sufferings can be minimized through effective disaster management and decision support system that can facilitate and expedite the resource distribution process more efficiently and effectively. In this paper, we utilized the high performance computing resources at Purdue University Calumet (PUC) to develop a disaster data management, visualization and decision supporting system that focuses on North West Indiana region. This paper focuses on three research objectives: 1) development of web-based disaster data management and communication system, 2) fast distributed computation of disaster related damage assessment and resource distribution strategy utilizing Miner Cluster, 3) interactive visualization of disaster affected populations, resource centers, as well as the resource distribution strategy. This research provides an efficient way for the local government agencies to process and manage disaster related information under adverse disaster conditions.

Keywords: Disaster Management and Communication, GIS, Grid Computing, Visualization

Short PaperGPU-Based Fast Volumetric Terrain Modeling for Volumetric GIS

D. Liao

The ability to integrate and process volumetric information has recently become increasingly desirable in traditional GIS. Volumetric GIS (VGIS) is a new, challenging, and promising field. However, due to the lack of the volumetric data source, many research activities in volumetric GIS have not been further carried out deeply. This paper proposes a GPU-based fast volumetric terrain modeling technique using standard graphics hardware. Using this technique can generate the volumetric terrain data from traditional geometric terrain data, such as Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) or Digital Elevation Model (DEM), at interactive time or even in real time. To achieve fast volumetric terrain modeling, this algorithm makes use of standard OpenGL features to apply GPU acceleration to solid terrain slicing and other graphics operations. Some experimental volumetric terrain results based on USGS DEM data are shown in the paper. The conclusions and further works are described in the end

Short Paper Session III   Tuesday May 24 8:30 AM - 9:30 AM
Session Chair: Prof. S. K. Ghosh, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India

Short PaperHazard Identification by geo-referenced Tracking of seagoing Vehicles

Reinhard Mueller, Petro Braverman, Michaela Demuth

Tracking and tracing are well established methods used in various applications for pure observing, process prediction or automation. RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging) was the very first technology in target detection and target tracking – launched by the maritime industry. The next milestone was reached by the transponder technology decades later. Today both technologies operate side by side or in a complementary manner. This paper will introduce a method for vessel traffic tracking in special navigational sea areas with recommended traffic rules based on the transponder technology AIS (Automatic Identification System). The goal of this application is the appropriate supporting of ship masters in cases of a detected hazard potential during high traffic density passages. The paper will also discuss the results of a realized case study executed in the Baltic Sea.

Keywords: AIS, electronic sea chart, hazard identification, rule violation, radio communication, self-controlling monitoring, vessel traffic

Short PaperA Geospatial Framework for Mapping of Electromagnetic Radiations

Saswati Ghosh, Arindam Dasgupta, S. K. Ghosh

The electromagnetic radiations from the various electronic equipments, such as transmitters for broadcasting of radio/TV and mobile communication, are the major sources of electromagnetic pollution. This is creating a potential hazard for public health. This work aims at mapping the electromagnetic field over population map through open geospatial standards. This may facilitate proper management of man-made electromagnetic radiations and monitoring of public health.

Keywords: Electromagnetic field, GIS mapping

Short PaperA Service Visualization Tool for Spatial Web Portal

Chen Xu, Chaowei Yang, Jing Li, Jizhe Xia, Xin Qu, Myra Bambacus, Yan Xu, Dan Fay

This paper introduces the design and development of a client-side graphical user interface (GUI) for the NASA Spatial Web Portal. A spatial web portal is an entry point to spatial data and services within spatial platforms. The usability and efficiency of the entry point will decide the success of the entire system. This paper describes visualization and GUI designs and implementation for improving client performance. Abundant information about web service is tightly grouped into different floating windows for better information display. Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) technology is implemented to enhance visualization performance. The mirror world tools such as Google Maps, Bing Maps, and NASA World Wind provide new mechanism for spatial data discovery and visualization. We test how the methods utilized along with Bing Maps improve the performance of the NASA Spatial Web Portal.

Keywords: Geospatial web portal, spatial web service, visualization, GUI

Short PaperFast Regridding of Large, Complex Geospatial Datasets

J.D. Blower, A. Clegg

In the earth sciences, data are commonly cast on complex grids in order to model irregular domains such as coastlines, or to evenly distribute grid points over the globe. It is common for a scientist to wish to re-cast such data onto a grid that is more amenable to manipulation, visualization, or comparison with other data sources. The complexity of the grids presents a significant technical difficulty to the regridding process. In particular, the regridding of complex grids may suffer from severe performance issues, in the worst case scaling with the product of the sizes of the source and destination grids. We present here a mechanism for the fast regridding of such datasets, based upon the construction of a spatial index that allows fast searching of the source grid. We discover that the most efficient spatial index under test (in terms of memory usage and query time) is a simple look-up table. A kd-tree implementation was found to be faster to build and to give similar query performance at the expense of a larger memory footprint. Using our approach, we demonstrate that regridding of complex data may proceed at speeds sufficient to permit regridding on-the-fly in an interactive visualization application. For large datasets with complex grids, the new mechanism is shown to greatly outperform algorithms used in many scientific visualization packages.

Keywords: Regridding, GIS,Web Map Service, visualization, curvilinear grids, spatial index

Short Paper Session IV   Tuesday May 24 8:30 AM - 9:30 AM
Session Chair: Prof. Dr. Ge Jin, Purdue University Calumet

Short PaperLandslide Hazard Mapping Using Geospatial Models

Saro Lee, Chandra Prakash Poudyal

The purpose of this study is to map landslide hazard in Panchthar area, Nepal. The landslide hazard map was made and validated using frequency ratio, logistic regression and artificial neural network models with a geographic information system (GIS). The landslide locations were identified in the study area from interpretation of aerial photographs and checked by field survey. A spatial database of the topography, geology and land use was constructed and the 10 landslide-related factors were extracted. Using these factors, the hazard to landslides was analyzed using the 3 models. The validation result showed that the frequency ratio, logistic regression and artificial neural network models had 82.2%, 81.6% and 78.3% accuracies, respectively, representing an overall satisfactory agreement, with the frequency ratio model giving the best result. The generated maps could be used to estimate the hazard to population, property and existing infrastructure such as the transportation network.

Keywords: Landslide hazard, Aerial Photograph,Frequency ratio, Logistic regression, Artificial neural network, GIS

Short PaperGeoTempo: A Modular, End-to-End OGC Sensor Web

Richard Beck, Kevin Kriegel, Mariusz Stanisz, Douglas Miller, ,Dan Gray, Robert Frohn, Joseph Brunner, John Dobbins, Phil Ardire, James Lein, Robert South, James McLaughlin, Charles Lambert, Lake Erie

Environmental information is valuable for monitoring and remediation efforts only if the location and time of acquisition are recorded in parallel with other parameters such as temperature, pH, pCO2 etc. Similarly, environmental information must be searchable and retrievable on the basis of geolocation and time of acquisition as well as other parameters such as sensor type, measurement type, measurement value, units of measure and keyword among others. Here we describe one specific and successful strategy for the implementation of geospatially and temporally-enabled cyber-infrastructure focused on open source geospatial standards (Open Geospatial Consortium or OGC), network protocols, operating systems, database software and geospatial extensions. This paper describes a real-world OGC- compliant sensor web for environmental monitoring and mapping of terrestrial and aquatic invasive species with geospatial and temporal query capabilities called GeoTempo as demonstrated in the Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada.

Keywords: Sensors, Sensor Web, Standardization, Interoperability

Short PaperAn Improved MTFC Restoration Algorithm for Remote Sensing Image

Yaqiong Chai, Zhongkui Feng, Dongkai Qi, Qing Guo

This paper proposes an improved modulation transfer function compensation restoration algorithm for remote sensing image based on inverse filtering, a traditional image restoration method. The improved algorithm is accomplished by optimizing the compensating curve shape and the compensating factor. The quality of resultant image is better than before and the quantitative results are satisfying. Moreover, the optimal algorithm is adaptive to various remote sensing images and it overcomes the limited adaptability of former work.

Keywords: MTFC; Remote sensing image; Algorithm; Image Restoration

Short PaperDemo Talk : Surf the World from Your Lap - Intelesense Demonstrates IVJ-Mobile on iPad

Kevin Montgomery

IVJ-Mobile from Intelesense Technologies is now running on the Apple iPad (as well as iPhone and Android devices), and provides access to over 1M layers of geospatial data at your fingertips from anywhere. Inteleview is built on top of the NASA WorldWind core engine, but extends its’ capabilities via the Intelesense Data Exchange- a massive data integration platform with collaboration portals to empower people to connect, share, and work together.

Keywords: iPad, IVJ-Moble, NASA World Wind, Digital Earth